Are 80% Lowers Legal In My State? (Complete USA Guide For Gun Laws In 2021)  thumbnail image

Are 80% Lowers Legal In My State? (Complete USA Guide For Gun Laws In 2021)

80 Percent Arms   |   Aug 25th 2021

There are currently over 16,000 gun control laws across the nation but that’s still not enough for anti-gunners who consistently encroach upon our 2nd Amendment rights. That’s why it’s up to you, the gun owner, enthusiast or first-time buyer to be knowledgeable and aware of the federal and state gun laws that apply to you. There are many nuances of how certain laws are applied differently in each state, especially for 80 lowers and 80 percent pistol frames. So in this comprehensive and informative guide we give a nearly complete overview of the gun restrictions throughout the country as well as other resources where you can access additional legal information.

Generally speaking, these are the questions you want to ask for each state’s gun laws:

  • What is the minimum age to purchase and, or possess a handgun or long gun?
  • Is the state a point of contact for the FBI NICS?
  • Is there a mandatory waiting period for gun purchases?
  • What are the open and concealed carry laws — is the state a ‘shall-issue’ or a ‘may-issue’ state for CCW’s?
  • Does the state have permitless or Constitutional Carry?
  • Is there an “assault weapons ban?”
  • Are there any magazine capacity restrictions/bans?
  • Is the state a castle doctrine state, does it have a ‘stand your ground’ law or statute in place?
  • Are there any “safe storage” mandates?
  • What are the requirements or restrictions for the purchase, sale and, or possession of ammunition in that state?
  • Does the state allow civilian ownership of machine guns or other NFA items such as short barrel rifles or shotguns, silencers, or explosive devices?
  • Does the state allow the sale, purchase or possession of privately made firearms and the components to build them such as 80% lower receivers and 80% pistol frames?

If a state does not have laws in place to address any of the aforementioned questions it means that there is a gap in regulation or that the state simply chooses to adhere to the federal regulations (which tend to be stricter) that have already been set by prior legislation. The remaining exception to that would be if the state in question has become a 2A Sanctuary and has passed ordinances that do not allow law enforcement officers to enforce what the state deems as ‘unconstitutional gun control regulations.

Disclaimer: We are not lawyers. The above information is not intended to be legal advice. Please do your own research, consult a lawyer, and do not rely on the above information.

Jump to my state’s gun laws:

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Alabama

In the state of Alabama, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a handgun or a long gun. There isn’t a permit or any extra identification required to purchase handguns other than a driver’s license. While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. So some states will choose to be as strict as possible with their background checks and some will be more lenient. Alabama does not require background checks for handgun or long gun purchases.

Open carry without a permit is legal with some areas being off limits such as courthouses or schools. Concealed carry permits in Alabama are called “license to carry firearms” and lawful permanent residents the age of 19 or older can apply for it. To carry concealed on person or in a vehicle within Alabama requires an “LTC.” Alabama is a “shall issue '' state and does offer non-resident LTC’s as well. To check which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There are no magazine capacity restrictions, no NFA weapons or items restrictions, no background checks necessary for private sales or transactions (though you should keep your receipts or a bill of sale at the very least) and there are no assault weapon bans. Alabama does have a Castle Doctrine law in place and the state does allow you to “Stand Your Ground.” There are no “safe storage” or any mandatory firearm storage requirements in Alabama.

No state permit or background check is required to purchase any ammunition in Alabama; however, under the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA) ammo for shotguns or rifles may be sold only to individuals 18 years of age or older. Any handgun ammo and online purchases of ammo shipped to Alabama require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Alabama.

Alaska

In the state of Alaska, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a long gun. In order to purchase a handgun a person must be at least 21 years of age. There are no permits or any extra identification documents required to purchase handguns in Alaska other than a driver’s license. If one does have a CCW permit, stores will allow buyers to buy firearms without a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Alaska is not a point of contact for the NICS and does not have any laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm. However, Alaska still abides by the federal law and stores will still require buyers to do the DROS which uses the NICS and only takes about 15 minutes to complete unless there is a flag in the system.

Alaska is a Constitutional Carry state which means that residents no longer are required to have permits to conceal or open carry firearms. There are age requirements though; a person must be 21 years of age or over to conceal carry and to open carry a person must be at least 16 years old. Conceal carry weapons permits, or “CCW’s” are still offered by the state of Alaska and greatly encouraged for people to obtain. Alaska does not offer non-resident CCW’s and is a “shall issue” state. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There are no magazine capacity restrictions, no NFA weapons or items restrictions, no background checks necessary for private sales or transactions (though you should keep your receipts or a bill of sale at the very least) and there are no assault weapon bans. Alaska does have a Castle Doctrine law in place and the state does allow you to “Stand Your Ground.” There are no “safe storage” or any mandatory firearm storage requirements in Alaska.

No state permit or background check is required to purchase any ammunition in Alaska nor are any records of ammo purchases kept. Alaska does not prohibit armor-piercing rounds or other “unreasonably dangerous ammunition.” It is a felony to sell or give ammunition to a minor without parental consent. Anyone the age of 18 or older can legally purchase ammo in Alaska.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Alaska.

Arizona

In the state of Arizona, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a handgun or a long gun. There are no permits or any extra identification documents required to purchase handguns in Arizona other than a driver’s license. If one does have a CCW permit, stores will allow buyers to buy firearms without a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Arizona is not a point of contact for the NICS and does not have any laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm. However, Arizona still abides by the federal law and stores will still require buyers to do the DROS which uses the NICS and only takes about 15 minutes to complete unless there is a flag in the system.

Arizona is a Constitutional Carry state which means that residents no longer are required to have permits to conceal or open carry firearms. There are age requirements though; a person must be 21 years of age or over to conceal carry and to open carry a person must be at least 18 years old. Conceal carry weapons permits, or “CCW’s” are still offered by the state of Arizona and greatly encouraged for people to obtain. Arizona also offers non-resident CCW’s which are very valuable in increasing the amount of the southwestern regions’ and other states that honor and reciprocate your permit. Arizona is a “shall issue'' state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There are no magazine capacity restrictions, no NFA weapons or items restrictions, no background checks necessary for private sales or transactions (though you should keep your receipts or a bill of sale at the very least) and there are no assault weapon bans. Arizona does have a Castle Doctrine law in place and the state does allow you to “Stand Your Ground.” There are no “safe storage” or any mandatory firearm storage requirements in Arizona.

No state permit or background check is required to purchase any ammunition in Arizona nor are any records of ammo purchases kept. Arizona does not prohibit armor-piercing rounds or other “unreasonably dangerous ammunition.” It is a felony to sell or give ammunition to a minor without parental consent. Any handgun ammo and online purchases of ammo shipped to Arizona require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Arizona.

Arkansas

In the state of Arkansas, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a handgun or a long gun. There are no permits or any extra identification documents required to purchase handguns in Arkansas other than a driver’s license. If one does have a CCW permit, stores will allow buyers to buy firearms without a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Arkansas is not a point of contact for the NICS and does not have any laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm. However, Arkansas still abides by the federal law and stores will still require buyers to do the DROS which uses the NICS and only takes about 15 minutes to complete unless there is a flag in the system.

Arkansas allows residents to openly carry firearms without a permit provided they are at least 18 years old. Concealed handgun carry licenses, or “CHCL’s” are offered by the state of Arkansas to residents at least 21 years of age or 18 years of age if they are an active member of the U.S. Armed Forces or National Guard. Arkansas actually has two types of concealed handgun carry licenses. The CHCL is the standard license which can be obtained after taking a standard state-approved firearms training course. There is also the E-CHCL which is an enhanced license that allows for carrying in some forbidden areas such as public colleges, most public buildings, non-secure locations in airports, churches and more. The E-CHCL requires about 8 extra hours of classroom and firing range training. Arkansas is a “shall issue” state. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There are no magazine capacity restrictions, no NFA weapons or items restrictions, no background checks necessary for private sales or transactions (though you should keep your receipts or a bill of sale at the very least) and there are no assault weapon bans. Arkansas does have a Castle Doctrine law as well as a “Stand Your Ground law in place.” There are no “safe storage” or any mandatory firearm storage requirements in Arkansas.

No state permit or background check is required to purchase any ammunition in Arkansas nor are any records of ammo purchases kept. Arkansas does not prohibit armor-piercing rounds or other “unreasonably dangerous ammunition.” It is a felony to sell or give ammunition to a minor without parental consent. Under the Gun Control Act (GCA) ammo for shotguns and rifles can be sold to individuals 18 years of age or older. Any handgun ammo and online purchases of ammo shipped to Arkansas requires buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Arkansas.

California

In the state of California, several documents are required to purchase a firearm. Regardless of if it is a long gun or handgun, residents will need to take a basic safety knowledge test to obtain a Firearms Safety Card or “FSC.” With this card it acts as a license to purchase an unlimited amount of long guns however, residents are limited to purchasing only one handgun per month. Although, there are no limits as to how many handguns you can obtain via private party transfers in a single month. To purchase a long gun you must be at least 18 years of age. To purchase a handgun in California you must be at least 21 years of age. However, there is an exception for persons between the ages of 18 - 21 which allow for purchase of a handgun if they possess an Annual Hunting License from the CA Department of Fish and Wildlife and can present the ID card when at an FFL dealer. The CA Hunting License costs about $52/year.

All firearms sales and transfers between private citizens require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). During the DROS process, buyers will be required to present their FSC, driver’s license and proof of their state residency via two selected documents such as car registration, a utility bill, residential lease, property deed, or government-issued identification (other than a driver license such as a passport card). Some stores are lenient and will allow buyers to complete the DROS initially without all the documents as long as they are provided when picking up the firearm at the end of the 10-day waiting period. Unfortunately, California does not allow firearm buyers to take their products home the same day they purchase it.

While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. California is a point of contact for the NICS and does have laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm.

California generally does not allow residents to openly carry firearms unless they are peace officers, military personnel, licensed hunters, or residents in counties with a population less than 200,000 people. Though it will differ greatly for residents depending on the county they reside in, concealed carry weapon permits or “CCW’s” are more than possible to obtain. CCW restrictions will differ per county as some counties will be “shall issue” and others will be “may issue.” To see what your county’s stance is on concealed carry permits check this ccw county map here.

There are magazine capacity restrictions of 10 rounds for both long guns and handguns. No NFA weapons or related items are allowed for the average civilian and there is currently an assault weapons ban in place. Not sure if your firearm is considered an assault weapon in California? See this assault gun flowchart here. California does have a Castle Doctrine law in place however it does not have a “Stand Your Ground” law in place; although CA appellate courts have held that there is no duty to retreat before using force in public there is often the concern of responding with “reasonable amount of force.” There are “safe storage” and mandatory firearm storage requirements in California. Here’s how to legally store firearms in California.

In order to purchase any ammunition in California a background check, the same process as the DROS, is required which means buyers will be asked to present their driver licenses when purchasing in stores. (There is no waiting period for ammo purchases) Ammo buyers must not only be at least 18 years of age for long guns, 21 years of age for handguns, but also must have recently purchased a firearm in order to signify that they’ve recently passed a background check within the past five years or some FFL’s may simply ask buyers to provide a FSC for proof. Ammo purchase records are kept by FFL’s for up to five years. California does not allow the sale of armor-piercing rounds or other “unreasonably dangerous ammunition” designed to penetrate armor or metal. It is a felony to sell or give ammunition to a minor without parental consent. Online purchase of ammo is still legal however it must be shipped to an FFL which involves not only the background check fee of $1 but also extra transfer fees of around $15.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in California.

Colorado

In the state of Colorado, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a long gun and anyone the age of 21 years or older can purchase a handgun. There are no permits or any extra identification documents required to purchase handguns in Colorado other than a driver’s license. All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Colorado is a point of contact for the NICS and does have laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm. However, Colorado uses their own system called the Colorado Bureau of Investigation or (“CBI”). The DROS process and the background check can take up to half an hour but buyers are allowed to take their firearms home the same day they purchase unless there is a flag in the system.

Colorado allows open carry in just about the whole state except for Denver county and persons must be at least 18 years of age and legally allowed to possess a firearm. Conceal carry weapon permits ,or “CCW’s,” are offered only to residents at least 21 years old but not non-residents. Colorado is a “shall issue” state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There is a 15 round magazine capacity restriction in Colorado but NFA weapons and related items are unrestricted. Hunting with suppressors is currently legal. There isn’t a statewide assault weapons ban but certain cities in Colorado do have assault weapon bans (“AWB”) in place. However, not every city’s AWB ordinance is enforceable due to Colorado’s statewide preemption law. Colorado does have a Castle Doctrine law in place and the state does allow you to “Stand Your Ground.” Residents should be aware of “safe storage” laws and mandatory firearm storage requirements in Colorado.

No state permit or background check is required to purchase any ammunition in Colorado nor are any records of ammo purchases kept. Under the Gun Control Act (GCA) ammo for shotguns and rifles can be sold to individuals 18 years of age or older. Any handgun ammo and online purchases of ammo shipped to Colorado requires buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Colorado.

Connecticut

In the state of Connecticut, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a long gun and anyone the age of 21 years or older can purchase a handgun. In order to purchase a handgun, buyers must obtain a handgun eligibility certificate (permit to purchase handgun) to do so. All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Connecticut is a point of contact for the NICS and does have laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm. However, Connecticut has their own system that they utilize called the Connecticut Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection (“DESPP”). The DROS process and the background check can take up to half an hour but buyers are allowed to take their firearms home the same day they purchase; provided the buyer obtains the necessary permit or certificate from DESPP prior, or unless there is a flag in the system.

Connecticut allows licensed open carry and issues concealed carry weapon permits in the form of “CTPP,” or a Connecticut Pistol Permit. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises.Connecticut is a “may issue” state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There is a 10 round magazine capacity restriction in Connecticut but NFA weapons and related items are unrestricted. Unfortunately, Connecticut does have an assault weapon ban (“AWB”) in place. Furthermore, Connecticut does not have a stand your ground law in place. The state law explicitly forces residents to retreat in the face of dance before resorting to lethal force when outside of one’s home. Residents of Connecticut do have a Castle Doctrine law in place and however it can be potentially limited since there isn’t a “ Stand Your Ground” law to clearly support responses involving deadly force. Residents should also be aware of “safe storage” laws and mandatory firearm storage requirements in regards to child access prevention.

Purchasing ammunition in Connecticut is very strict. In order to buy ammo in Connecticut, a CTPP, gun sales permit, or long gun/handgun eligibility certificate is required. There isn’t a background check but buyers must be at least 21 years of age and provide proof of valid ID. The same goes for all online purchase ammo shipped to Connecticut.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are not legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Connecticut.

Delaware

In the state of Delaware, anyone the age of 18 years or older is eligible to purchase a long gun and anyone the age of 21 years or older can purchase a handgun. There are no extra permits or state licensing requirements to purchase firearms in Delaware. All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Delaware is not a point of contact for the NICS but does have laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm.

Delaware allows licensed open carry and issues concealed carry weapon permits in the form of “CDWL,” or a Concealed Deadly Weapon License. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises. Applicants are required to obtain five references from residents of their county and their application has to be published in a local newspaper 10 days before filing it with the state. CDWL’s are processed and reviewed by the state attorney general’s office and a court. Delaware is a “may issue” state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

Currently, there are no magazine capacity restrictions in Delaware, though that could soon change as there is currently a Senate Bill being pushed to ban “high capacity mags.” Delaware does not have an assault weapon ban (“AWB”) in place but a new bill to do has been recently introduced. Delaware does not have a stand your ground law in place but the state does have a Castle Doctrine law in place. Residents should also be aware of “safe storage” laws and mandatory firearm storage requirements as it is a crime to intentionally or recklessly store or leave a loaded firearm within “easy access” of a child or a person.

Purchasing ammunition in Delaware is very strict. In order to buy ammo in Delaware, a CTPP, gun sales permit, or long gun/handgun eligibility certificate is required. There isn’t a background check but buyers must be at least 21 years of age and provide proof of valid ID. The same goes for all online purchase ammo shipped to Delaware.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Delaware.

District of Columbia

In the District of Columbia, no person under the age of 21 may purchase a firearm. However, those between the age of 18-21 can still own firearms by applying for a registration certificate which also requires a notarized statement from a parent/guardian that the applicant has permission to own and use the firearm to be registered and that the parent/guardian assumes all civil liability for all damages resulting from the actions of the applicant in the use of the firearm to be registered.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Washington D.C. is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks required by federal law by contacting the FBI directly. They also have a 10-day waiting period before gun buyers can pick up their purchase.

Washington D.C. does not allow open carry and issues concealed carry weapon permits in the form of “LTC’s,” or a License To Carry. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises. Applicants must live or work within the District of Columbia. Non-resident applicants may also apply provided they already have a permit in the state they reside in. Washington D.C. is a “shall issue” state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There is a magazine capacity ban in D.C. which limits magazine capacity to only 10 rounds.. D.C. does have an assault weapon ban (“AWB”) in place which restricts assault weapons and .50 BMG rifles. D.C. does not have a stand your ground law in place nor a Castle Doctrine however it does have some self-defense laws in place that protect your need for self-defense response when in danger at home. Residents should also be aware of “safe storage” laws which require that each firearm owner keep their firearm in his or possession unloaded and either disassembled or secured by a trigger lock, gun safe, locked box, or other secure device.

Purchasing ammunition in D.C. is incredibly strict. You cannot own ammunition unless you are a holder of a valid registration certificate for a firearm. Each sale or transfer must be made in person while proof is provided that the ammunition is purchased for an existing firearm that’s already been registered under the buyer’s name (caliber/gauge must be correct). All transaction records must be maintained by the dealer for at least 1 year from the date of sale. Law enforcement officers, licensed firearms dealers, licensed collectors, and firearms instructors are exempt.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however are not legal to ship directly to buyers residing in the District of Columbia.

Florida

In the state of Florida, a person must be at least 21 years of age in order to purchase a firearm. The law does not prohibit minors between ages 18 to 21 from possessing firearms though. The exception lies with unloaded firearms in a minor’s home and the law does not apply if the minor is at least age 16 and engaged in lawful hunting activity while being supervised by an adult. The same exception exists for minors participating in lawful marksmanship competition, practice or other lawful recreational shoot activity while being supervised by an adult. Anyone the age of 21 years or older is eligible to purchase a handgun or long gun. Buyers are not required to have an extra permit to purchase handguns.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Florida is a point of contact for the NICS and does have laws requiring firearms dealers to initiate the background check prior to transferring a firearm. That’s why FFL’s in Florida have to initiate background checks by contacting the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE).

The DROS process and the background check can take up to 3 days before buyers are allowed to take their firearms home. However, there is no mandatory waiting period for CCW permit holders, those trading in a firearm, or buyers who have completed the 16-hour hunter safety course and have the safety certification card to prove it.

Florida does not allow open carry but does issue concealed carry weapon permits in the form of “CWL,” or a concealed weapons license. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises. Florida does honor CCW licenses from other states with which Florida has a reciprocity agreement with and is a “shall issue” state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There are no magazine capacity restrictions in Florida; NFA weapons and related items are allowed. Fortunately, Florida doesn’t have an assault weapon ban (“AWB ”) in place. Florida also has a stand your ground law in place. The state law does not force residents to retreat in the face of mortal danger before resorting. State laws allow a lethal response in kind as well when outside of one’s home.

Purchasing ammunition in Florida is not strict. To buy ammo in the sunshine state all you need to be is of legal age (18 years old). However, armor-piercing and exploding rounds are not legal to possess. There isn’t a background check required for ammo transactions but for those making online orders in bulk they must be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Florida.

Georgia

In the state of Georgia, there is no minimum age requirement to possess rifles and shotguns. For handguns, a person must be at least 21 years of age in order to purchase that firearm. The law does not prohibit minors between ages 18 to 21 from possessing firearms though. The exception applies when an underage person is attending a hunter education or firearms safety course, engaging in recreational practice at a range, involved in an organized competition, or while hunting/fishing and if the handgun is unloaded while traveling to any of the aforementioned activities. In addition, the exception also exists when the underage person is at his or her residence with the permission of their parents or legal guardian to possess said handgun. Buyers are not required to have an extra permit to purchase handguns in Georgia.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Since 2005, Georgia has not been a point of contact for the NICS and directly contacts the FBI for background checks.

The DROS process and the background check does not have any waiting periods in Georgia so buyers can take their guns home the same day they’re purchased on. CCW permit holders also have the additional benefit of not needing a background check when purchasing a firearm at a store as long as they present their CCW license card.

Florida allows licensed open carry which is obtainable through the state’s WCL or “weapons carry license. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises. Georgia does honor CCW licenses from other states with which Georgia has a reciprocity agreement with and is a “shall issue” state. Be aware of the limits of open and conceal carrying by checking the state restrictions. To see which states’ concealed carry permits it honors check this reciprocity map here.

There are no magazine capacity restrictions in Georgia; NFA weapons and related items are allowed. Fortunately, Georgia doesn’t have an assault weapon ban (“AWB ”) in place. Georgia has a stand your ground law in place and is considered a castle doctrine state. That means the state law does not force residents to retreat in the face of mortal danger before resorting to a lethal response in kind. State laws allow force when outside of one’s home as well. There are no safe storage laws regarding guns in Georgia.

Purchasing ammunition in Georgia is largely unrestricted and sales are mostly unregulated. Under state law you can buy virtually any ammo in Georgia.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Georgia.

Hawaii

In the state of Hawaii, no person under the age of 21 may purchase a firearm. Minimum age to purchase and possess firearms is quite strict on the Big Island. It is lawful for minors from the ages 16 years and up to use and handle firearms for hunting or target practice while under the supervision of a parent, adult, or legal guardian. However, they are not allowed to possess them on their own or have parents transfer firearms to them until they are 21 years old. In order to purchase firearms in Hawaii a “Permit to Acquire” is required. One permit is needed per handgun that is to be bought by residents but only one permit is needed to cover rifle or shotgun purchases no matter how many purchases are made within the permit’s valid dates.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Hawaii is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks that are processed by local law enforcement. They also have a 10-day waiting period before gun buyers can pick up their purchase.

Hawaii is a “may issue'' state when it comes to concealed carry and it does not recognize CCW permits from any other states. Open carry and concealed carry are allowed as long as you do have a carry permit however it is only valid in the county the permit is issued in. Hawaii issues concealed carry weapon permits in the form of “LTC’s,” or a License To Carry. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises. However, they are rarely ever issued. To see more details of Hawaii’s restrictive policies on concealed carry permits check this reciprocity map here.

There is a magazine capacity ban in Hawaii which limits magazine capacity to only 10 rounds including a ban on any firearm that fires a caliber larger than .50 BMG. There isn’t a specific “assault weapons ban” in Hawaii however they do have their own version of one which criminalizes the manufacture, possession, sale or other transfer, barter, trade, gift or acquisition of an “assault pistol.” Assault pistols are any semiautomatic handguns which have threaded barrels, an overall length of 12 inches or more, a barrel shroud and other factors similar to the AWB in California.

When in Hawaii, there is a duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is no stand your ground law in place. There is however, a Castle Doctrine which gives residents the freedom to respond to lethal threats in kind without requiring the duty to retreat in one’s own home or place of business. Interestingly enough, Hawaiians are not required to have a locking device accompanied with the sale of a firearm and does not require firearm owners to lock their weapons under any sort of safe storage mandates.

Purchasing ammunition in Hawaii is not very strict. All Federal restrictions apply but the state itself does not require a license for the purchase of ammunition or require sellers to maintain sales records.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however are not legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Hawaii.

Idaho

In the state of Idaho, no person under the age of 18 may purchase a firearm. It is only lawful for minors under the age of 18 to possess firearms if they have written permission from their parent, or guardian to possess the weapon or if they are accompanied by a parent or guardian while possessing the weapon. Any person under the age of 12 handling a firearm absolutely must be accompanied by an adult. The normal exemptions apply for minor possession of firearms when they are attending a hunter safety course, firearms safety course, traveling to or from these activities, engaged in target practice, an organized competition, or while hunting with a valid hunter’s license. The state of Idaho does not require any extra permits for the purchase of any rifle, shotgun, or handgun.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Idaho is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks that are sent directly to the FBI. There is no waiting period for gun buyers in Idaho. Under the Brady Exemption: persons have been issued state permits to purchase or possess firearms and holders of CCW licenses are exempt from background checks when purchasing a firearm. Private party transfers are also not subject to background checks.

Idaho is a “shall issue'' state when it comes to concealed carry and it recognizes CCW permits from several other states. Open carry is legal without a license and is for anyone above 18 years of age. Idaho issues concealed carry weapon permits in the form of “CWL’s,” or a Concealed Weapons License. There are two types of CWL’s in Idaho: a standard CWL and an enhanced CWL. The standard CWL covers a variety of handguns and knives but the enhanced CWL is for those who wish to travel out of state. In fact, some other states only recognize Idaho’s enhanced permit and not the standard one. All that being said, since March of 2020, Idaho passed constitutional carry which allows any U.S. citizen above the age of 18 who can legally possess a firearm to be able to lawfully carry a concealed firearm for self-defense without a license. CWL’s are still highly recommended and are issued to both residents and non-residents.

There are no magazine capacity bans or limits in the state of Idaho. No weapon types are limited including “AWB” or NFA items.

When in Idaho, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a very strong stand your ground law in place. Idaho’s Castle Doctrine, which gives residents the freedom to respond to lethal threats in kind without requiring the duty to retreat in one’s own home or place of business, also extends to a person’s car when not at home or in front of their yard.

There are no safe storage laws in Idaho but in order to purchase ammunition you must be 18 years old to buy shotgun and rifle ammo and 21 years old to buy handgun ammo. Idaho does limit persons 16 years old or younger to only be able to use shotgun shells and 22 caliber rifle ammunition. It is illegal to sell or give these minors any larger caliber otherwise. Idaho does not require a license to sell, purchase, or possess ammo. Idaho also does not require sellers to retain a record of their sales. You can buy virtually any type of ammunition in Idaho so long as you are above the age of 21 and within good standing of the law.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Idaho.

Illinois

The state of Illinois prohibits any person under the age of 18 to possess a handgun. State law also prohibits any person from knowingly transferring a handgun to any minor (straw purchase). In order to purchase firearms in Illinois residents must obtain a Firearms Owner ID card or, FOID. To obtain a FOID, applicants generally must be over 21 years of age unless they have written consent from their parents or legal guardian. But for long guns such as rifles or shotguns, any eligible Illinois resident above 18 years of age may do so. Please note that there is a 72 hour waiting period for firearm purchases.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Illinois is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks that are processed by the Illinois Department of State Police (DSP).

Illinois is a “shall issue'' state when it comes to concealed carry and it does not recognize CCW permits from any other states. But non-resident permits are available for residents from Arkansas, Idaho, Mississippi, Nevada, Texas and Virginia. Open carry is completely illegal. Illinois issues ccw’s in the form of a “CCL” or Concealed Carry License. Conceal carriers must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state-approved firearms training course that includes live-fire exercises. To see more details of Illinois’ restrictive policies on concealed carry permits check this reciprocity map here.

The state of Illinois does not have any form of a state-level “assault weapons ban,” magazine ban or capacity limit, or restrict the sale or possession of firearms that have been defined as assault weapons though some local jurisdictions do restrict them.

When in Illinois, there is a duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is no stand your ground law in place or a castle doctrine. Residents should also be aware of safe storage mandates in which they are required to have a locking device securing their firearm(s) so that no one other than the owner or another lawfully authorized user can use it.

To buy ammo in Illinois, buyers must be at least 21 years of age and have a FOID card. Anyone under the age of 21 must have written consent of a parent or legal guardian to purchase ammo. Illinois has banned the manufacture, sale, purchase and possession of any armor-piercing bullets, dragon’s breath shotgun shell, bolo shell and flechette shells, and exploding ammunition.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Illinois.

Indiana

Indiana is an interesting state for firearm laws. There are actually no rules on h ow old you have to be in order to buy a firearm at the state level, so the federal laws kick in which mean residents must be at least 18 years or older and cannot be a felon. This is stressed because many people in Indiana have a felony on their record — about 5 percent of the state’s population, which is more than most states’ ccw permit holder population. The state of Indiana prohibits any person under the age of 18 to possess a handgun, assault weapon, or machine gun. For minors to legally possess and shoot guns, they can do so recreationally for target practice, hunting, and safety training when supervised at their own residence or at a range with a parent or legal guardian. Minors, however, can be gifted firearms from their parents. There are no licenses whatsoever needed to purchase a firearm in the state of Indiana and they do not need to be registered either.

All firearm purchases in stores/FFL’s require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Indiana is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks that are processed by contacting the FBI directly. Private party transfers do not require a background check.

Indiana is a “shall issue'' state when it comes to concealed carry and it does recognize CCW permits from any other states. Open carry and concealed carry is legal for Indiana residents with a ccw which comes in the form a “LCH” or License to Carry a Handgun.” Conceal carriers must be at least 18 years of age and have no requirement for firearms training To see more details of Indiana’s policies on concealed carry permits check this reciprocity map here.

The state of Illinois currently does not have any form of a state-level “assault weapons ban,” magazine ban or capacity limit, or restrict the sale or possession of firearms that have been defined as assault weapons at the federal level.

When in Indiana, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a very strong stand your ground law in place and castle doctrine. There are no safe storage laws in Indiana.

To buy ammo in Indiana buyers need only fulfill federal requirements and to be in good legal standing. To buy any bulk ammo online you must be at least 21 years old. The only ammo restriction in Indiana is a prohibition of certain kinds of armor-piercing rounds. The state does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition or require sellers to maintain sales records nor impose a minimum age for the purchase or possession of ammunition.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Indiana.

Iowa

The state of Iowa recently relaxed some of their gun purchasing and possession laws. Like all states, Iowa prohibits any person under the age of 18 to possess a handgun. State law also prohibits any person from knowingly transferring a handgun to any minor (straw purchase). At this point no extra licenses or permits are needed to purchase firearms in general. Minors are allowed to possess long guns such as rifles or shotguns and can even possess handguns as long as they were given to the minor by a parent, legal guardian, or spouse that is above the age of 21. There are no waiting period for firearm purchases in Iowa.

All firearm purchases and private party transfers require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Iowa is a partial point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks that are processed by the county sheriffs and the Iowa Department of Public Safety (IDPS) for handgun purchasers. The county sheriffs previously would conduct checks on applicants for five-year permits to purchase handguns but continue to handle the applications for permits to carry a concealed handgun. Whereas all long gun purchase background checks are conducted by the FBI thru the NICS.

Iowa is a “shall issue'' state when it comes to concealed carry BUT as of July 1, 2021, Iowa has enacted constitutional carry which means any person at least 21 years of age may lawfully possess and conceal carry a handgun. Iowa will continue to issue ccw’s in the form of (PCW’s) or permits to carry weapons for other states’ reciprocity purposes. Open carry is also legal under the new constitutional carry law. To see more details of Iowa’s policies on concealed carry permits check this reciprocity map here.

Iowa does not restrict any “assault weapons” or have a magazine capacity ban but they do count any illegal modification of a firearm’s “rate of fire” to be an aggravated misdemeanor. Essentially, it’s a very legal jargon-esque way of saying “no changing semi-automatic firearms to full automatic.”

When in Iowa, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a stand your ground law in place and a castle doctrine. Residents should also be aware of safe storage mandates in which gun owners will be penalized if a minor gains access to a firearm and exhibits it in a public place in an unlawful manner, or uses the firearm unlawfully to cause injury or death to any person.

To buy ammunition in Iowa, buyers must be at least 21 years of age regardless of caliber. Anyone under the age of 21 must have written consent of a parent or legal guardian to purchase ammo except for those above 18 years of age who can purchase long gun ammo. Iowa only prohibits the possession of ammo that contains chemical compounds or mixtures designed to explode or detonate on impact. That includes shotgun shells or cartridges which contain “exothermic pyrophoric mischmetal which is designed to throw or project a fireball.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Iowa.

Kansas

The state of Kansas does not impose restrictions on sales of firearms to minors but they are not allowed to possess any gun with a barrel shorter than 12 inches long. There are however exception to this if the minor is attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian. No state permit or extra licenses are required to purchase a rifle, shotgun, or handgun.

All firearm purchases require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Kansas is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, firearms dealers conduct background checks that are processed by contacting the FBI directly. Private transfers do not require a background check. There is also no mandatory waiting period for gun purchases at stores.

Kansas is a constitutional carry state which means any legally eligible person at least 21 years of age may carry a firearm concealed in public without a license or permit. Persons underage wishing to conceal carry may only do so on their own property, residence or fixed place of business. Kansas will continue to issue ccw’s in the form of (CCHL’s) or Concealed Carry Handgun Licenses. The minimum age to obtain a license is 21 years old. But 18 to 20 year olds can apply for a provisional license. Applicants must complete an 8 hour handgun safety and training course that is state approved. Kansas recognizes all other states’ various forms of CCW’s for non-residents. To see more details of Kansas’ policies on concealed carry permits check this reciprocity map here.

Kansas does not restrict any “assault weapons” or have a magazine capacity ban. When in Kansas, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a stand your ground law in place and a castle doctrine. There are also no safe storage mandates.

Kansas does not allow the possession, manufacturing, or sale of any handgun cartridge that is plastic-coated with a core of less than 60% lead by weight. Sellers are not required to maintain a sales record and no licenses are required to purchase or sell ammunition.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Kansas.

Kentucky

The state of Kentucky only requires individuals to be 18 years of age in order to legally possess a handgun but there are no minimum age requirements for the possession of long guns. All the normal exceptions apply for minors in terms for when they’re allowed to possess or transport a handgun: when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Kentucky is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI directly. Private party transfers do not require background checks. Kentucky also utilizes the Brady Exemption in which ccw permit holders can be exempt from background checks when purchasing new guns in stores by presenting their valid ccw permit ID card.

Kentucky is a constitutional carry state which means it is legal for anyone above the age of 21 years who is legally allowed to possess a firearm to be able to conceal carry without a license or permit. Kentucky continues to issues ccw’s though as it is necessary for residents to have when carrying out of state. CCW’s in Kentucky come in the form of (CCDW’s) or Concealed Carry of Deadly Weapons” which also apply to knives, clubs, blackjacks, nunchucks, shuriken and brass knuckles. Kentucky recognizes all ccw licenses from other states. To see more details of Kentucky’s policies on concealed carry permits check this reciprocity map here.

Kentucky does not restrict any “assault weapons” or have a magazine capacity ban. When in Kentucky, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a stand your ground law in place and a castle doctrine. There are also no safe storage mandates.

Kentucky prohibits the manufacturing, possession or sale of armor-piercing and flanged ammunition. Kentucky does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition. Sellers are not required to maintain a sales record.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Kentucky.

Louisiana

The state of Louisiana only requires individuals to be 18 years of age in order to legally purchase a handgun and there are no minimum age requirements for the purchase or possession of long guns. All the normal exceptions apply for minors in terms for when they’re allowed to possess or transport a handgun: when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Louisiana is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI directly. Private party transfers do not require background checks. Louisiana also exempts all ccw holders from background checks when purchasing new guns in stores by presenting their valid ccw permit ID card.

Louisiana is a “shall-issue” state and allows open carry of firearms in public as long as the person is above 18 years of age and not prohibited from carrying or possessing a firearm. Of course, some areas are off-limits such as federal buildings, parades, or bars. Louisiana offers ccw’s in the form of (CHP’s) or Concealed Handgun Permit which is also available to non-residents. Applicants must be at least 21 years of age, a resident of the state and complete a firearms training course. For more details on Louisiana’s concealed carry policies please check out this reciprocity map here.

Louisiana does not restrict any “assault weapons” or have a magazine capacity ban. When in Louisiana, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a stand your ground law in place and a castle doctrine. There are also no extra safe storage mandates.

Louisiana prohibits the manufacturing, possession or sale of armor-piercing bullets. Louisiana does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition. Sellers are not required to maintain a sales record. All online bulk ammo sales require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Louisiana.

Maine

The state of Maine only requires individuals to be 18 years of age in order to legally purchase a handgun. For long guns the minimum age for a person to possess one is 16 years of age. The exception to this is if a parent, foster parent, or legal guardian transfers it to the minor. All the other normal exceptions apply for minors in terms for when they’re allowed to possess or transport a handgun: when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases require a background check (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Maine is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI directly. Private party transfers do not require background checks.

Maine is a constitutional carry state which means any legally eligible civilian above the age of 21 years old and any active duty or honorably discharged military members at least 18 years of age can open carry firearms in public. Maine is a “shall-issue” state and continues to offer ccw’s in the form of (CCH’s) or Concealed Carry Handguns which is also available to non-residents. Applicants must be at least 21 years of age, a resident of the state and complete a state approved firearms training course. Of course, some areas are off limits such as Acadia National Park. For more details on Maine’s concealed carry policies please check out this reciprocity map here.

Maine does not restrict any “assault weapons” or have a magazine capacity ban. When in Maine, there is no duty to retreat before force for self-defense can be used because there is a stand your ground law in place and a castle doctrine. There are also no extra safe storage mandates.

In order to buy ammo in Maine the buyer must be at least 16 years old. Maine prohibits the manufacturing, possession or sale of armor-piercing bullets. Maine does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition. Sellers are not required to maintain a sales record. All online bulk ammo sales require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Maine.

Maryland

The state of Maryland requires individuals to be 21 years of age in order to legally purchase a handgun. For long guns, the minimum age for purchase is 18 years old and there is no minimum age to possess rifles or shotguns.

All firearm purchases require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Maryland’s Secretary of State Police acts as a partial point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through that state department directly. Long gun related background checks/transactions are run through the FBI’s NICS. Maryland has a 7 day mandatory waiting period for all firearm buyers before allowing them to take their purchase(s) home.

When it comes to conceal carry, Maryland is a “may-issue” state which means local authorities must determine whether CCW permits should be given to any individual citizen or not. Open and concealed carry are both legal in Maryland but only for those with ccw’s in the form of “WCHP” or Maryland Wear/Carry Handgun Permit. However, open carry of long guns in public is permitted. Applicants must be at least 21 years of age, a resident of the state and complete a state approved 16-hour long firearms training course. For renewals, another 8 hour course is required. For more details on Maryland’s carry conceal policies check out the state’s reciprocity map here.

Maryland is a castle doctrine state which means there is no legal duty to retreat when at home if met with a threat. However, when outside the home there is a duty to retreat if possible before responding with lethal force in the name of self-defense as there is no stand your ground law in place in Maryland. Maryland does restrict “assault weapons” which includes “assault pistols” and “assault long guns.” There is also a large capacity magazine ban in Maryland limiting all magazines to only 10 rounds. There are no mandatory safety storage laws in Maryland but all handguns manufactured after 2002 must include an integrated mechanical safety device in order to be legally sold in the state.

In order to buy ammo in Maine the buyer must be at least 18 years old. Persons 18 years old and up may purchase long gun ammunition. To purchase handgun ammo buyers must be at least 21 years of age. Maryland prohibits the manufacturing, possession or sale of armor-piercing bullets. Maryland does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition. Sellers are not required to maintain a sales record. All online bulk ammo sales require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Maryland.

Massachusetts

The state of Massachusetts requires individuals to be 18 years of age in order to legally purchase a long gun. In order to purchase a handgun, buyers must be at least 21 year of age and possess a handgun purchase license. Michigan specifically considers all long guns to be at least 26 inches in length. Long guns themselves do not require any extra license for purchase. However, minors may possess firearms. For persons between the ages of 14 and 18, they may apply for a Firearm Identification Card (FID) which requires an application including the applicant’s parent or legal guardian’s permission to do so. Minors can apply as early as 14 years old but will not be approved for an FID until they are 15 years old. For adults purchasing a firearm, they also require the FID, a state license which is processed through Massachusetts’ Instant Record Check System aka (MIRCS).

All firearm purchases require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Massachusetts is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS.

Massachusetts is a “may-issue” state which means local authorities must determine whether CCW permits should be given to any individual citizen or not. Open and concealed carry are both legal in Massachusetts but only for those with ccw’s in the form of “LTC” or license to carry. Applicants must be at least 21 years of age and complete a state approved firearms training course. For more details on Maryland’s carry conceal policies check out the state’s reciprocity map here.

Massachusetts is a castle doctrine state which means there is no legal duty to retreat when at home if met with a threat. However, when outside the home there is a duty to retreat if possible before responding with lethal force in the name of self-defense as there is no stand your ground law in place in Massachusetts.

Massachusetts does restrict “assault weapons.” See Massachusetts definition of an “assault weapon” here. There is also a large capacity magazine ban in Massachusetts limiting all magazines to only 10 rounds. For shotguns, the magazine capacity limit is only 5 rounds. Residents should be aware of the extensive mandatory “safe storage” laws and read up on those here.

In order to buy ammo in Massachusetts, buyers must have an FID. Buyers must be at least 18 years old to purchase long gun ammunition. To purchase handgun ammo buyers must be at least 21 years of age. Massachusetts prohibits the manufacturing, possession or sale of armor-piercing bullets. Massachusetts does require a license for the sale of ammunition which only lasts 3 years. Sellers are not required to maintain a sales record. All online bulk ammo sales require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Massachusetts.

Michigan

The state of Michigan requires individuals to be 21 years of age in order to legally purchase a handgun. For long guns, the minimum age for purchase is 18 years old and there is no minimum age to possess rifles or shotguns. However, minors may possess firearms. All the other normal exceptions apply for minors in terms for when they’re allowed to possess or transport a handgun: when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Michigan is a partial point of contact for the NICS and their dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS. If residents have a handgun purchase ID card or CCW permit it exempts them from a background check when purchasing a new gun at an FFL store.

Michigan is a “shall issue” state which means local authorities handle the CCW license applications, and background check process to determine whether a CCW permit should be given to any individual citizen or not. Open and concealed carry are both legal in Michigan. Open carry is legal for residents at least 18 years old and firearms used in open carry must be registered in the carrier’s name. Non-residents must have a valid concealed carry license from their home state in order to conceal or open carry. Concealed carry licenses in Michigan come in the form of “CPL’s” or a Concealed Pistol License. Applicants must be at least 21 years of age and complete a state approved firearms training course. For more details on Michigan’s carry conceal policies check out the state’s reciprocity map here.

Michigan is a castle doctrine state which means there is no legal duty to retreat when at home if met with a threat but only when someone has broken into your home. However, when outside the home there is also no duty to retreat before responding with lethal force in the name of self-defense as there is a stand your ground law in place inMichigan.

Michigan does not restrict “assault weapons” or have any magazine capacity bans. There are also no safe storage laws mandated in Michigan though dealers are required to sell firearms with a cable lock and gun case, or box which most manufacturer’s do anyways.

Michigan doesn’t require a license for the sale, purchase, or possession of ammo. Nor does it require sellers to maintain a sales record. But it does prohibit the manufacture, sale, and distribution of “unreasonably dangerous ammunition.” Their definition of unreasonably dangerous ammo includes the following: armor piercing rounds, bullets constructed of substances other than; tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or frangibles. In order to buy ammo in Massachusetts, buyers must be at least 18 years old to purchase long gun ammunition. To purchase handgun ammo buyers must be at least 21 years of age. All online bulk ammo sales require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Michigan.

Minnesota

The state of Minnesota requires individuals to be 21 years of age in order to legally purchase a handgun. For long guns, the minimum age for purchase is 18 years old and there is technically no minimum age to possess rifles or shotguns for minors as long as they are being accompanied or supervised by a parent or legal guardian. Exceptions for minors in possession of firearms also includes when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian. However, minors as young as 14-15 years old can apply and be issued a firearms safety certificate.

All firearm purchases require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Minnesota is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going to the FBI’s NICS directly.

Minnesota is a “shall issue” state which means local authorities; specifically, the Sheriff’s Office will process the application in the applicant’s county of residence. Open and concealed carry are both legal in Minnesota but only for those with ccw’s in the form of “PCP” or permit to carry a pistol. Non-residents have the same permissions so long as their CCW is recognized by the state of Minnesota. Applicants must be at least 21 years of age and complete a state approved firearms training course. For more details on Minnesota’s concealed carry policies check out the state’s reciprocity map here.

Do be aware that Minnesota does not have a stand your ground law in place which means when in the face of danger, there is a legal responsibility to retreat if possible before responding with lethal force in your own or others’ self defense. On the flip side, Minnesota is a castle doctrine state which means there is no legal duty to retreat when at home if met with a threat.

Minnesota does restrict “assault weapons.” See this long list of definitions that Minnesota use to classify certain firearms as “assault weapons.” Surprisingly, there are no magazine capacity bans in Minnesota. There are no mandatory safe storage requirements for firearms in Minnesota but if your carelessness causes the harm or death of a child you will be liable and held responsible.

Generally speaking ammunition regulation is pretty loose in Minnesota, however there are restrictions of “unreasonably dangerous ammunition” which include certain armor piercing rounds. In order to buy ammo in Minnesota, you must be at least 18 years old and the corresponding age for whatever firearms you are legally allowed to possess. So basically you must be at least 21 years old to buy handgun ammo. No licenses are necessary for the sale, purchase, or possession of ammo in Minnesota nor are sales records required for sellers.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Minnesota.

Mississippi

Mississippi is one of the most gun friendly states in the nation. As such, there is not a lot of gun control legislation at the state level which is where the federal laws will often kick in. To buy a handgun in Mississippi you must be 21 or older, provide state ID and go through the background check process. Long gun buyers only have to be 18 years or older and must do the same steps as handgun buyers would. There is technically no minimum age to possess rifles or shotguns for minors as long as they are being accompanied or supervised by a parent or legal guardian. Exceptions for minors in possession of firearms also includes when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Mississippi is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going to the FBI’s NICS directly.

The state of Mississippi is a shall-issue and constitutional carry state with ccw’s in the form of “SFP’s” or standard firearms permit. There is also an enhanced version of the permit (“E-SFP”) which allows concealed carry in more locations. Applicants must be at least 21 years old and complete a state approved firearms safety/training course. However, for military service members, they only have to be 18 years old to apply. Due to constitutional carry, open carry is legal without a permit for anyone 18 years of age and legally allowed to possess a firearm. For more information on Mississippi’s concealed carry policies check out their reciprocity map.

Mississippi is a castle doctrine stand and has a “stand your ground” law which means residents have no duty to retreat before resorting to lethal force when acting in self-defense. There is no assault weapons ban or magazine capacity restrictions in Mississippi. The only ammunition regulated by Mississippi are armor piercing rounds. Otherwise, Mississippi does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition. Sellers are also not required to maintain a sales record. Federal laws apply so buyers must be 21 years of age to buy handgun ammo and 18 years old to buy any long gun ammo. All bulk ammo orders online require buyers to be 21 years of age.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Mississippi.

Missouri

It seems worthy to mention at this point that for states with more less gun control restrictions and stronger gun culture they specifically enforce that it is illegal to “recklessly” sell, lease, loan, give away or deliver any firearm to a person under the age of 18 without the child’s parental or legal guardian's consent. This is true for the state of Missouri as well.

To purchase a handgun in Missouri, buyers must be legally eligible and at least 21 years of age. Long buyers need only be 18 years old and of course in good legal standing. When it comes to minors in possession of firearms, there is technically no minimum age to possess rifles or shotguns for minors as long as they are being accompanied or supervised by a parent or legal guardian. Exceptions for minors in possession of firearms also includes when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

Firearm purchases require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Mississippi is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going to the FBI’s NICS directly.

Missouri is a permitless carry and also a “shall-issue” state. Permits are issued for reciprocity purposes which is helpful for resident when traveling out of state. Open and carry concealed carry are legal in Missouri with a ccw in the form of a “CCP” or Concealed Carry Permit. Applicants must be at least 19 years of age or 18 if they’re in the military. Since permitless carry is legal, anyone legally allowed to possess a firearm and 19 years of age or older can carry a concealed firearm on their person without a permit.

Missouri is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law which means that homeowners need not retreat before using lethal force in response to a threat within their own home for the sake of self-defense. In the same regard, if an individual believes that deadly force is necessary to defend themselves or others to prevent death, serious injury or forcible felony then that deadly force is justifiable.

Missouri does not restrict assault weapons nor do they have a magazine capacity restriction. Virtually every type of ammunition is legal and unrestricted in the state of Missouri. However, ammo cannot be unlawfully given to minors. Otherwise, Missouri does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition. Sellers are also not required to maintain a sales record. Federal laws apply so buyers must be 21 years of age to buy handgun ammo and 18 years old to buy any long gun ammo. All bulk ammo orders online require buyers to be 21 years of age.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Missouri.

Montana

Montana is one of a few states that doesn’t impose any specific age restrictions on the purchase or possession of firearms due to a strong gun culture so most federal laws will kick in to determine certain policies. No extra permits or licenses are necessary to purchase long guns or handguns in Montana. However, due to Montana’s child access prevention law, minors under the age of 14 aren’t allowed to carry or use firearms in public. Since the regular federal age restrictions apply it means that legal buyers must be 18 years of age to buy a long gun and handgun buyers must be at least 21 years old. The normal exceptions for minors in possession of firearms apply as well which include when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

Firearm purchases generally require a background check but private party transfers do not (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Montana is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going to the FBI’s NICS directly. If a purchaser presents a state CCW permit, it exempts them from a background check when purchasing a gun from an FFL store.

Montana is a “shall-issue” state for CCW’s which are simply called Montana Concealed Weapons Permit holders. However, constitutional carry was recently signed into law by Montana’s governor and should begin to be in effect starting June 1st, 2021. Before constitutional carry. Before constitutional carry went into effect via H.B.102, the preexisting policies are the following: open carry is legal in Montana without a permit for anyone above 18 years old. If any minors 14 years and up want to open carry they can only do so with the direct supervision of a parent or legal guardian. Though not specifically stated in H.B.102, it can be reasonably assumed that Montana’s constitutional carry is similar to that of other states where permitless open and concealed carriers of firearms must be of legal age to do so just as the state’s policies mandated previously. For more details please see Montana’s reciprocity map here.

Montana has moved to nullify federal laws it deems as unconstitutional when it comes to gun control regulations. Therefore, there are no assault weapon bans or magazine capacity restrictions to be concerned of. NFA items are legal in Montana which includes SBR’s, suppressors, and full auto or burst fire guns.

Montana is a castle doctrine state and also has a stand your ground law in place which means you do not have the legal responsibility to retreat in the face of a threat or danger to yourself or others both in and out of the home place.

Other than armor piercing rounds that are federally categorized as “unreasonably dangerous ammunition” Montana residents can buy virtually any type of ammo. Federal rules apply so long gun ammo buyers must be at least 18 years old and handgun ammo buyers must be at least 21 years old. All online bulk ammo buyers must be at least 21 years old. The state of Montana does not require a license for the sale, purchase, possession or a record of transactions for ammunition.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Montana.

Nebraska

Nebraska requires long gun buyers to be at least 18 years old. Handgun buyers must be 21 years old and have a handgun purchase certificate. No extra permits or licenses are required for long gun purchases. The normal exceptions for minors in possession of firearms apply as well which include when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

Firearm purchases generally require a background check but private party transfers do not (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Nebraska is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going to the “NSP’s,” Nebraska State Police instant check system. If a purchaser presents a state CCW permit or a handgun purchase permit, it exempts them from a background check when purchasing a gun from an FFL store.

Nebraska is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s in the form of “CHP’s” or Concealed Handgun Permits. They are also offered for non-residents. Open carry without a permit is legal for anyone at least 18 years old legally allowed to carry/possess/own a firearm. Some areas are off-limits so please look into where those areas might be. Concealed carry applicants must be 21 years old at the minimum and complete a state approved firearms training course. For more details on Nebraska’s policies check out their reciprocity map here.

Nebraska does not have any assault weapon bans, magazine capacity bans, or any strict safety storage mandates. The only law regarding safe storage is for when concealed carriers have a gun in their vehicle, the state asks that gun owners leave their guns locked up in the glove compartment or in a box that is securely attached to the car.

Nebraska is a castle doctrine state but does not have a stand your ground law, which means people are required to retreat if possible before returning fire or responding to a threat with lethal force. To buy ammo in Nebraska no license is needed for the sale, purchase or possession of it. Sellers also do not have to keep a record of their ammo sales/transactions. Otherwise, people can buy virtually any type of ammunition in Nebraska.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Nebraska.

Nevada

The state of Nevada requires handgun buyers to be at least 18 years old to buy a long gun and 21 years old to buy a handgun. No extra permits or licenses are required for either handgun or long gun purchases. The normal exceptions for minors above the age of 14 in possession of firearms apply as well which include when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

Firearm purchases generally require a background check but private party transfers do not (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Nevada is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the “NDPS” or Nevada Department of Public Safety, also known as the Brady Point of Sale program. If a purchaser presents a state CCW permit or a handgun purchase permit, it exempts them from a background check when purchasing a gun from an FFL store. When buyers are approved it is valid for 30 days, which allows buyers to buy multiple guns for the following month without additional background checks.

Nevada is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s in the form of “CFP’s” or Concealed Firearm Permits. They are also offered for non-residents. Open carry without a permit is legal for anyone at least 18 years old legally allowed to carry/possess/own a firearm. Some areas are off-limits so please look into where those areas might be. Concealed carry applicants must be 21 years old at the minimum and complete a state approved firearms training course. For more details on Nevada’s policies check out their reciprocity map here.

Nevada does not have any assault weapon bans or magazine capacity bans and NFA items are allowed but under federal law, the possession of machine guns is prohibited unless they were lawfully possessed and registered before May 19, 1986. There are also no strict safety storage mandates but to negligently leave a gun where a child prohibited from handling or possessing a firearm may gain access is a misdemeanor.

Nevada is a castle doctrine state and does have a stand your ground law, which means people are not required to retreat if possible before returning fire or responding to a threat with lethal force. To buy ammo in Nebraska no license is needed for the sale, purchase or possession of it. Sellers also do not have to keep a record of their ammo sales/transactions. Certain armor piercing rounds are prohibited but otherwise, people can buy virtually any type of ammunition in Nevada.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Nevada until January 1st, 2022.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire doesn’t actually have any minimum age for the possession of firearms and does not penalize the sale of a long gun to a minor. However, federal laws still apply which means: Handgun buyers must be at least 21 years old and 18 years old to buy a long gun. No extra permits or licenses are required for either handgun or long gun purchases. The normal exceptions for minors above the age of 14 in possession of firearms apply as well which include when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

Firearm purchases generally require a background check but private party transfers do not (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. New Hampshire is a partial point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the New Hampshire Department of Safety “DOS.”

New Hampshire is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry state. That means anyone at least 18 years old can carry concealed or openly in public so long as they’re not prohibited from possessing firearms. Ccw’s are still issued for reciprocity purposes in the form of “PRL’s” or Pistol/Revolver Licenses. They are also offered for non-residents. Some areas are off-limits so please look into where those areas might be. Concealed carry applicants must only be 18 years old and legally allowed purchase/possess a firearm. No classes or state approved training is required. For more details on New Hampshire’s policies check out their reciprocity map here.

New Hampshire does not have any assault weapon bans, magazine capacity bans or safe storage mandates.However, New Hampshire is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law, which means people are not required to retreat if possible before returning fire or responding to a threat with lethal force so long as they themselves did not provoke the situation.

Armor piercing rounds and exploding ammunition is prohibited in New Hampshire. To buy ammo in New Hampshire no license is needed for the sale, purchase or possession of it. Sellers also do not have to keep a record of their ammo sales/transactions. All online purchases of ammunition require buyers to be at least 21 years of age.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF and are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in New Hampshire.

New Jersey

New Jersey has strict laws regarding the age requirement for purchase and possession of firearms. In order to purchase any firearm, whether it is a handgun or a long gun, you must have a “FPIC” or a Firearms Purchaser Identification Card. Long gun buyers must be 18 years of age or older. Handgun buyers must be at least 21 years old. Minors are strictly prohibited from possessing and using firearms unless in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian, or a person who has a CCW permit or FPIC. While the restrictions are clear the normal exemptions for minors in possession of a firearm should apply when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. New Jersey is a full point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the New Jersey State Police. Additionally, it must be noted that permits to purchase handguns only allow the purchase of one handgun per permit. Meanwhile, the FPIC allows unlimited rifle and shotgun purchases.

New Jersey is a ”may-issue” state which means that permits are issued at the local level by municipal police departments or the New Jersey State Police. Applicants must first obtain approval from their local police chief and then present their application to a superior court judge.

Concealed carry weapon permits, although difficult for civilians to obtain, are offered in the form of a “PCH” or, Permit to Carry a Handgun. These are rarely approved to civilians unless there is a demonstrated urgent necessity. Non-residents may also apply for a PCH but applicants must be at least 21 years old. To see more details about concealed carrying in the state of New Jersey see their reciprocity map here.

New Jersey does have an assault weapon ban. Click here to see the details of what constitutes an “assault weapon” in New Jersey. New Jersey also has magazine capacity restriction laws which limit magazine capacities to only 10 rounds per mag. Mags capable of holding 11 to 15 rounds however, were able to be registered along with the registration of an “assault weapon” up until the deadline date set by the state which was July 13, 2019. Please be aware that the state of New Jersey does have safe storage mandates which state that all firearms must be stored, unloaded, in a securely locked gun safe or locked container. Ammunition must also be stored in a separate, securely locked gun safe or locked container.

New Jersey is a castle doctrine state but does not have a stand your ground law, which means people are not required to retreat if possible before returning fire or responding to a threat with lethal force in the home. Residents do however have the duty to retreat first if possible, when in public, before acting in self-defense with essentially any level of force. See the New Jersey State Legislature’s literature on self-defense here.

New Jersey updated their restrictions for who can and cannot possess or purchase ammunition. To see which individuals cannot purchase or possess ammo in New Jersey please click on the link. In order to purchase or possess ammo in the state of New Jersey, one must have an FPIC, a permit to purchase a handgun, or a CCW permit. Transfers or ammunition and sales all require to be handled by a licensed gun dealer (aka FFL), wholesaler or manufacturer. Retail sellers are required to maintain a permanent record of ammunition acquisition and disposition.

Generally speaking, in order to purchase or possess long gun ammo in New Jersey one must be at least 18 years old. All handgun ammo buyers or owners must be at least 21 years old in New Jersey. Armor piercing rounds and exploding ammunition is prohibited in New Jersey. The legal terms are not expressly clear but it is a safe assumption that New Jersey also strictly prohibits the possession of hollow point ammunition as well.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are not legal to ship directly to buyers residing in New Jersey.

New Mexico

New Mexico has more freedom when it comes to gun laws. There is no minimum age to possess long guns in New Mexico. Handgun buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra licenses or permits are needed in order to purchase any handguns so long as the buyer is not legally restricted from doing so and is of the correct minimum age. Restrictions regarding minors in possession of firearms is pretty standard which means that they are prohibited from possessing or using firearms unless in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian. That being said, New Mexico does require all hunters to be at least 18 years old unless minors have a certificate showing successful completion of a state-approved hunter training course.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. New Mexico is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS.

New Mexico is a ”shall-issue” state when it comes to concealed carry weapon permits which are offered in the form of “CHL’s” or Concealed Handgun License. Open carry is legal without any license necessary as well as concealed carrying within a vehicle. CCW holders in New Mexico are limited to carrying one gun at any given time under the permit. Applicants must be at least 21 years old and a state approved 15 hour course including live-fire instruction is required. Non-residents are not issued any CHL’s in New Mexico with the exception of military service members who are permanently stationed within the state and that privilege extends to their family members as well. Residents will still find good reasons to get a CHL for reciprocity purposes when travelling across other states in the country. Additionally, CHL holders do not need a background check when purchasing a gun at an FFL. For more details on New Mexico’s concealed carrying policies see their reciprocity map here.

New Mexico does not have any assault weapons ban or any large capacity magazine restrictions. New Mexico does not have any safe storage mandates when it comes to the storage of firearms or ammunition. While New Mexico’s laws do not expressly say “castle doctrine” they choose to use the term ‘habitation’ instead. Essentially, if you are legally allowed to be in a place, whether that’s a cot in the back of a store or your home, if you are in a location where you are legally residing and see the need to defend yourself with lethal force, that is deemed legal action in the state of New Mexico. New Mexico residents can also enjoy the ability to stand their ground as they have no duty to retreat as long as deadly force is justified and again, if you have the legal right to be where you are.

All types of ammunition are virtually unrestricted in New Mexico as the state does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition, and does not require ammunition sellers maintain sales records. Online sales of ammo can even be shipped straight to your front door in New Mexico.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in New Mexico.

New York

New York City and State are notoriously restrictive when it comes to gun control law. The state of New York in general is more normal as it requires all long gun buyers to be at least the age of 18 years. Handgun purchasers must be at least 21 years old and have a license to purchase a handgun. NYC also requires a separate permit for purchasing rifles or shotguns (long guns). Permits and licenses are all handled by the New York Police Department. Because one of the requirements to getting a permit or a license in New York City is “to be of good moral character” — this is the catchall phrase commonly used to deny most if not all civilians from being able to purchase firearms or to concealed carry a handgun. If you are a NYC resident, we strongly suggest you look deeper into New York City’s gun control regulations and restrictions with this guide. Be aware that each New York county is going to potentially have wildly different gun laws and different application fees. All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. New York is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS. The only firearms transfers that do not require a background check in New York is if the transfer of ownership is between two immediate family members that both have the proper licenses/permits and are of the minimum age to purchase/possess the firearm in question.

New York is a ”may-issue” state when it comes to concealed carry weapon permits which are offered in the form of “NYPL’s” or New York Pistol License. Open carry is not addressed in New York state law, so best to assume that it’s not legal unless you are hunting with a valid permit or at an established range. The only form of concealed carrying that is legal is with a NYPL. Applicants must be a minimum of 21 years old. Just because you have a NYPL doesn’t mean you’ll be legally allowed to carry in every county of the state either so be sure to look into the state’s county reciprocity for NYPL holders. New York state does not offer non-resident NYPL’s and does not honor any permits from other states in the country.

New York does have a very comprehensive assault weapons ban. To see what details turn a gun into an “assault weapon” in New York see the overview by Giffords. New York state also has large capacity magazine restrictions. In general, all firearms are restricted to 7 rounds per mag. However, if a person is at an established range they then may use 10 rounds per mag.

New York does have safe storage mandates when it comes to the storage of firearms in households that have children under the age of 16. These mandates also require gun owners in general to have the gun locked in a container that is incapable of being unlocked without a key or combination lock. Gun cable locks are also a viable option. The main concern in the home is to make sure those under the age of 16 will not have access to the firearm being stored at home.

New York law does not include an overt ‘castle doctrine’ but does not require residents to retreat before responding with force in self-defense so long as they are in their own home or place of business. In terms of stand your ground laws, New York does not have any and forces residents with the duty to retreat before responding with force if absolutely necessary when outside the home or place of business.

There are several ammunition restrictions and regulations in the state of New York. Minors under the age of 16 are completely prohibited possessing ammunition. All ammo buyers must be at least 18 years old. Armor piercing rounds are restricted and exploding ammo is prohibited as they both fall under “unreasonably dangerous ammo.” In order to purchase handgun ammunition, buyers must already be a handgun owner and be in possession of a license to purchase a handgun to demonstrate to FFL dealers that they are authorized to be in possession of handgun ammo. That also means that handgun ammo buyers must be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are not legal to ship directly to buyers residing in New York.

North Carolina

North Carolina gun laws are more free than other states. Federal laws still apply so the minimum age to purchase a long gun is 18 years old and the minimum age to purchase a handgun is 21. There is also the requirement of a permit to purchase a handgun for those wanting to buy pistols. It sounds like a pain but it only costs $5.00 to apply for and can be obtained at any local Sheriff’s Office. Also, the minimum age for possession of long guns is 12 years old so as they are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian. The minimum age for possession of a handgun in North Carolina is 18 years old.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. North Carolina is a partial point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS. For private party transfer of handguns, sellers that are not FFL dealers must verify that the buyer has a permit to purchase a handgun or a CCW permit.

North Carolina is a ”shall-issue” state when it comes to concealed carry weapon permits which are valid for 5 years and are offered in the form of “CHP’s” or Concealed Handgun Permits. Open carry is legal without any license or permit necessary as long as the carrier is at least 18 years old, allowed to possess the weapon they are concealing and are not in a restricted area such as schools or government buildings. CHP applicants must be at least 21 years old and complete a state approved course. Non-residents may also apply for CHP’s. One of the benefits of having a CHP is that it negates the need for FFL dealers to conduct a background check when a CHP holder is purchasing a new firearm. To see more concealed carrying policies see North Carolina’s reciprocity map here.

North Carolina does not have any assault weapons ban or any large capacity magazine restrictions. North Carolina also does not have any safe storage mandates when it comes to the storage of firearms or ammunition. North Carolina is a castle doctrine state and does have a stand your ground statute which means that as long as residents are justified, there is no duty to retreat before responding with lethal force for the sake of self-defense both in and out of the home place.

The only type of ammo that is prohibited from being imported, manufactured, possessed, purchased or sold in North Carolina is teflon-coated bullets. Otherwise, North Carolina does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammo — including “armor piercing” rounds.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in North Carolina. 

North Dakota

North Dakota is among the most gun friendly states in the US. Per Federal laws, the age requirement to purchase a long gun is 18 years old. The age requirement to purchase a handgun is 21 years old. While there is no minimum age to possess rifles or shotguns in North Dakota, minors under the age of 18 may not be in possession of a handgun unless they are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian. Even though these minimum age requirements exist for minors, North Dakota does not criminalize or penalize the sale or transfer of long guns to minors either. No extra permits or licenses are required in order to purchase a handgun or long gun in North Dakota.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. North Dakota is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS. Per the Brady Act, any ccw license holder would be exempt from needing a background check when buying a gun at an FFL dealer.

North Dakota is a ”shall-issue” state when it comes to concealed carry weapon permits which are offered in the form of “CWL’s” or a Concealed Weapon License. Open carry is legal without any license or permit necessary for residents with a CWL. It is also allowed for non-residents with a valid CCW from their home state as long as the state’s permit is honored and reciprocated by North Dakota. All open carriers must be at least 18 years old. North Dakota will consider any person a resident so long as they have been in the state for at least 30 days.

North Dakota issues two different types of CWLs: Class 1 and Class 2. Both types of CWLs require a state approved training course but the Class 1 has additional testing requirements which allows permit holders to have more reciprocity in states across the country to concealed carry. For more details on concealed carrying in North Dakota, check out their reciprocity map.

North Dakota does not have any assault weapons ban or any large capacity magazine restrictions. However, North Dakota recently did update their safe storage mandates concerning firearms. Please refer to Giffords’ explanation of when and where a gun needs to be “secured” in North Dakota. North Dakota is a castle doctrine state and has a new stand-your-ground law which just went into effect this August 1st, 2021 which means that as long as residents are justified, there is no duty to retreat before responding with lethal force for the sake of self-defense both in and out of the home place.

All types of ammunition are virtually unrestricted in North Dakota as the state does not require a license for the sale, purchase or possession of ammunition and does not require ammunition sellers to maintain sales records. Online sales of ammo can even be shipped straight to your front door in North Dakota.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in North Dakota.

Ohio

To purchase a long gun in Ohio buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Ohio buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Ohio nor is extra registration necessary. Ohio does not have any state laws that sets a minimum age for possession of firearms although federal age restrictions should still apply. That means that essentially any minor under the age of 18 or 21 (for long guns and handguns) should be in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Ohio is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS directly. Per the Brady Act, any ccw license holder would be exempt from needing a background check when buying a gun at an FFL dealer.

Ohio is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s and offers them to residents in the form of a “CHL” or concealed handgun license. Permits are issued at the county level by local Sheriff’s offices.

Open carrying is legal without a license except for in vehicles. Ohio state statutes don’t actually specifically regulate open carry so the federal minimum age for possession of a handgun (18 years old) applies in this case. Applicants can apply for CHL’s as long as they are at least 21 years of age. A state approved course comprising 8 hours of firearms training and other requirements is needed to qualify for license approval. Non-residents can also apply for Ohio’s CHL but only if they work in Ohio. For more details on the state’s concealed carrying policies check out Ohio’s reciprocity map here.

Ohio does not have an assault weapon ban or any magazine capacity restrictions. Ohio is a castle doctrine state per SB 175 and also recently became a stand your ground state which means there is no duty to retreat before using force in self-defense or defense of another. Basically all ammunition is up for grabs in Ohio as none of it is prohibited or especially regulated. No license is required for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo so long as long gun ammo buyers are at least 18 years old and handgun ammo buyers are at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Ohio.

Oklahoma

To purchase a long gun in Oklahoma buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Oklahoma buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Oklahoma nor is extra registration necessary. Oklahoma’s minimum age for possession of firearms is 18 years old but whether they are using a long gun or handgun, the normal exemption applies when minor are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Oklahoma is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI’s NICS directly. Per the Brady Act, any ccw license holder would be exempt from needing a background check when buying a gun at an FFL dealer.

Oklahoma is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry state for ccw’s and offers them to residents in the form of a “SDAL” or Self-Defense Act Licenses. These licenses are issued at the county level by local Sheriff’s offices. Open carrying is legal for anyone who can legally own/possess a firearm and is 21 years of age or older. Applicants can apply for SDAL’s as long as they are at least 21 years of age or 18 years if they are an active duty service member of the military. SDAL’s do limit handgun calibers to .45 ACP being the highest allowed for use under the license. Oklahoma does not issue non-resident permits. For more details on the state’s concealed carrying policies check out Oklahoma’s reciprocity map here.

Oklahoma does not have an assault weapon ban, any magazine capacity restrictions, or any safe storage mandates. Oklahoma is a castle doctrine state and is also a stand your ground state which means there is no duty to retreat before using force in self-defense or defense of another. The only type of ammunition that is prohibited in Oklahoma is ammo that’s advertised or marketed as a “restricted bullet.” Which is just another way to describe a certain type of armor piercing rounds that have a core of less than 60% lead and has fluorocarbon coating which allows it to fly at a higher velocity. No license is required for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo so long as long gun ammo buyers are at least 18 years old and handgun ammo buyers are at least 21 years old. Machine guns are allowed in the state of Oklahoma and is a very NFA-item friendly place.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Oklahoma.

Oregon

To purchase a long gun in Oregon buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Oregon buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Oregon nor is extra registration necessary. Oregon’s minimum age for possession of firearms is 18 years old but whether they are using a long gun or handgun, the normal exemption applies when minor are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Oregon is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the Oregon Department of State Police which also runs a check thru the state’s mental health data system.

Oregon is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s and offers them to residents in the form of a “CHL” or Concealed Handgun License. Open carrying is legal without a license for anyone who can legally own/possess a firearm and is at least 18 years old and it can even be done within vehicles. Some locations may be off limits such as federal buildings and Indian reservations. CHL applicants must be at least 21 years old and pass a state approved training course. Oregon does not honor CCW’s from any other states and only offers non-residents from contiguous states to be able to apply for an Oregon CHL. For more details on the state’s concealed carrying policies check out Oregon’s reciprocity map here.

Oregon does not have an assault weapon ban, any magazine capacity restrictions, but does have safe storage mandates per SB 554. Machine guns are allowed in the state of Oregon as it’s a very NFA-item friendly state. Oregon is not a castle doctrine state and does not have a stand your ground law in place however there is precedence from the Oregon Supreme Court case “State of Oregon v. Sandoval” which ruled that Oregonians do not have a duty to retreat when faced with a violent confrontation so exercise good judgement as any response with force still has to be justified. Oregon law also states that residents are allowed to use deadly force to prevent certain property crimes so be sure to look into that more as it is not a blanket statement.

The only type of ammunition that is prohibited in Oregon is ammo that has bullets coated in teflon. Other than that Oregon does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo so long as long gun ammo buyers are at least 18 years old and handgun ammo buyers are at least 21 years old. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Oregon.

Pennsylvania

To purchase a long gun in Pennsylvania buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Pennsylvania buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Pennsylvania nor is extra registration necessary. Pennsylvania’s minimum age for possession of firearms is 18 years old but whether they are using a long gun or handgun, the normal exemption applies when minor are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Pennsylvania is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the Pennsylvania State Police. There is also no waiting period for gun purchases in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s and it really shows as the state has one of the highest population rates of being licensed at 10.93%. CCW’s in Pennsylvania are offered to residents in the form of a “LCF” or License to Carry Firearms. Open carrying is legal without a license for anyone who can legally own/possess a firearm and is at least 18 years old and it can even be done within vehicles. Some locations may be off limits such as courthouses or schools. However, due to the ambiguity of openly carrying and concealed carrying, Pennsylvania’s Supreme Court recognizes that there is an uncertainty for which is which sometimes and that a visible firearm could still be considered as ‘concealed’ depending on the situation. LCF applicants must be at least 21 years old and there is no training requirement. Non-resident receive the same benefit of having the same requirements. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Pennsylvania’s reciprocity map here.

Pennsylvania does not have an assault weapon ban, any magazine capacity restrictions, or safe storage mandates. Machine guns are allowed in the state of Pennsylvania as it’s a very NFA-item friendly state. Pennsylvania is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law in place which means that any person has no duty to retreat and has the right to stand his ground and use force, including deadly force if he/she believes it is immediately necessary to do so to protect themselves against death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping or sexual intercourse by force or threat.

The only type of ammunition that is prohibited in Pennsylvania is ammo that has bullets coated in teflon or “armor piercing rounds.” Other than that Pennsylvania does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Pennsylvania.

Rhode Island

To purchase a long gun in Rhode Island buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Rhode Island buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Rhode Island nor is extra registration necessary. However, there is a state application that is required along with a mandatory waiting period of 7 days before you can take your firearm home after purchasing it. Handgun purchases also require passing a safety and training course approved by the state. Rhode Island’s minimum age for possession of firearms is 18 years old but whether they are using a long gun or handgun, the normal exemption applies when minors are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Rhode Island is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI along with another background check that is to be conducted by the state police or local chief of police. Rhode Island CCW holders are exempt from the state background check but not from the federal one.

Rhode Island is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s but the state attorney general operates on a “may-issue” basis. A very low amount of Rhode Island’s population have been successful in obtaining a CCW. If you become one of the lucky few, CCW’s are offered to Rhode Island residents in the form of a “LCCW” or License to Carry Concealed Weapon (AKA a “blue card”). These licenses have to be obtained from the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. Open carrying is legal for those with a LCCW. LCCW applicants must be at least 21 years old, complete a state approved course, be able to explain why they need a firearm and must also be able to provide three references. Non-residents that have a permit from their home state can apply for a LCCW through local law enforcement in Rhode Island. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Rhode Island’s reciprocity map here.

Rhode Island does have an assault weapon ban, but does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are restricted in Rhode Island but if you look into an NFA gun trust, that could allow you to possess NFA items.

Rhode Island is a castle doctrine state but does not have a stand your ground law in place which means that any person has no duty to retreat and has the right to stand his ground and use force, including deadly force if he/she believes it is immediately necessary to do so to protect themselves against death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping or sexual intercourse by force or threat when in their own place of residence but there is a duty to retreat when outside of the home.

Rhode Island does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. There are otherwise no known ammo restrictions and online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are not legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Rhode Island.

South Carolina

To purchase a long gun in South Carolina buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in South Carolina buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in South Carolina nor is extra registration necessary. South Carolina’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors are in the direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. South Carolina is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI along with another background check that is to be conducted by the state police or local chief of police. South Carolina CCW holders are exempt from background checks when purchasing a gun from a FFL dealer.

South Carolina is a “shall-issue” state for ccw’s with permits being issued at the state level by the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division or (SLED). CCW’s are offered to South Carolina residents in the form of a “CWP” or Concealed Weapons Permit. Open carrying is legal for those with a CWP only. CWP applicants must be at least 21 years old and complete a state approved course. be able to explain why they need a firearm and must also be able to provide three references. Non-residents that own property in the state are also eligible to apply for a CWP otherwise applicants would have to be military personnel stationed in South Carolina. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see South Carolina’s reciprocity map here.

South Carolina does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in South Carolina.

South Carolina is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law in place which means that any person has no duty to retreat and has the right to stand his ground and use force, including deadly force if he/she is in a place where they have a right to be including, nut not limited to, their home, place of business, or places outside of their persona residence if they reasonably believe it is necessary to prevent death or great bodily injury to themself or another person or to prevent the commission of a violent crime.

South Carolina does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. The only type of ammunition that is prohibited and restricted in South Carolina is armor piercing rounds that are teflon coated. Otherwise, there are no known ammo restrictions and online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in South Carolina.

South Dakota

To purchase a long gun in South Dakota buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in South Dakota buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in South Dakota nor is extra registration necessary. South Dakota’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. South Dakota is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI. South Dakota CCW holders are exempt from background checks when purchasing a gun from a FFL dealer.

South Dakota is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry state for concealed carrying. Permits are still being issued for reciprocity purposes with other states in the form of “CCP’s” or a Concealed Pistol Permit. Open carrying is also legal in South Dakota without a permit. Some areas are off limits and when open carrying in a vehicle it must be plainly within site. There are three different types of CPP’s: a regular permit, Gold Card permit, and Enhanced permit. The regular permit allows residents to carry concealed and is also recognized in other states. Having the gold card permit allows gun buyers to skip the background check and any waiting periods. The enhanced permit requires a firearms training class and is recognized by an additional 7 states in terms of CCW reciprocity. South Dakota recognizes all permits from other states. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see South Dakota’s reciprocity map here.

South Dakota does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in South Dakota.

South Dakota is a castle doctrine state and doesn’t have an explicit stand your ground law in place but the laws in South Dakota do not require residents to have a duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

South Dakota does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Basically all ammunition is unrestricted in South Dakota. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be mailed straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 880% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in South Dakota.

Tennessee

To purchase a long gun in Tennessee buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Tennessee buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Tennessee nor is extra registration necessary. Tennessee’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Tennessee is a partial point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the “TBI” or Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.

Tennessee is a “shall-issue” and permitless state for concealed carrying. Permits are offered to Tennessee residents in two forms: a “HCP” and “EHCP” or handgun carry permit/enhanced. Applicants for the HCP only need to complete a 90 minute online course. The Enhanced HCP requires completion of a state-approved 8 hour class which allows the permit holder to carry a gun more openly or concealed to more places. Any concealed carrier must be at least 21 years or older unless they are active duty members of the military who have completed basic training. Non-residents can apply for HCP only if they work in the state on a regular basis and hold a valid permit from their home state. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Tennessee’s reciprocity map here.

Tennessee does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Tennessee.

Tennessee is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law in place as well which means that when justified but the laws in Tennessee do not require residents to have a duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

Tennessee does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Basically all ammunition is unrestricted in Tennessee. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be delivered straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Tennessee.

Texas

To purchase a long gun in Texas buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Tennessee buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Texas nor is extra registration necessary. Texas’ minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Texas is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI.

Texas is a “shall-issue” and permitless state for concealed carrying effective September 1, 2021. Anyone who is at least 21 years old and legally allowed to possess a handgun will be able to concealed carry and open carry without a permit. CCW’s will continue to be issued in the form of a Texas License to Carry or “LTC.” Applicants must be at least 21 years of age and pass a state approved class which includes a written exam and a shooting proficiency test. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Texas’ reciprocity map here.

Texas does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Texas.

Texas is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law in place as well which means that when justified but the laws in Texas do not require residents to have a duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

Texas does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Basically all ammunition is unrestricted in Texas. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be delivered straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Texas.

Utah

To purchase a long gun in Utah buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Utah buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Utah nor is extra registration necessary. However, since Utah has a pretty strong gun culture, there are specific laws regarding minors in possession of firearms, especially guns that fall under the NFA classification. In general, it is best to follow the standard guidelines with regard to allowing minors be in possession or use of firearms which applies when they have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Utah is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the Utah Criminal Investigations and Technical Services Division of the Department of Public Safety. Utah CCW holders are exempt from background checks when purchasing a gun from a FFL dealer.

Utah is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry state as of May 5th, 20221 per HB 60 for concealed carrying. Permits have historically been issued to as much as 21% of the population and it is one of the most sought after non-resident permits as it recognized 48 other states in the country. Despite Constitutional Carry passing, permits are still being issued for reciprocity purposes with other states in the form of “CFP’s” or a Concealed Firearm Permit. Open carrying is also legal in Utah without a permit. Some areas are off limits so be sure to plan ahead when going to places you’re unfamiliar with. CFP applicants must be at least 21 years of age which goes the same for non-resident applicants. Permit applications can be quickly approved after completing a concealed carry license course taught by a NRA-licensed instructor. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Utah’s reciprocity map here.

Utah does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Utah as it is a very NFA-friendly state.

Utah is a castle doctrine state and also has a stand your ground law in place which removes the duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

Utah does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Basically all ammunition is unrestricted in Utah. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Utah.

Vermont

To purchase a long gun in Vermont buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Vermont buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Vermont nor is extra registration necessary. Vermont’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 16 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

There are additional exceptions when transferring possession of a firearm to a minor in Vermont — it is lawful if the transfer is a gift from a family member and if the person receiving the firearm is a law enforcement officer or a member of the Armed Forces or National Guard. Minors can also be exempt if they’ve completed a hunting safety course approved by the state Commissioner of Fish and Wildlife.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including some private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Vermont is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI directly. For more details on background check exemptions on gun transfers in Vermont see the list provided by Giffords.

Vermont is a rare “does not issue” and constitutional carry state for both open and concealed carrying. Any person 16 years of age or older can legally open or concealed carry without a permit in Vermont. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see V ermont’s reciprocity map here.

Vermont does not have an “assault weapons” ban, but does have magazine capacity restrictions which limit long gun magazines to only 10 rounds per mag and handgun mags to 15 rounds per mag maximum. or safe storage mandates. At the same time, Vermont exempt tubular magazines and magazines for lever action, bolt action or curio/relic guns that hold .22 caliber rimfire ammunition to be able to hold as many rounds without limit. Vermont does restrict machine guns and NFA items but some of them are still allowed for civilian ownership in Vermont and residents can also pursue a NFA gun trust if necessary.

Vermont is not explicitly a castle doctrine state and doesn’t have a stand your ground law in place but the courts have consistently ruled that there is no duty to retreat before using force in public.

Essentially, all ammunition is unrestricted in Vermont with the exception of minors being in possession of ammo. Minors must be at least 16 years old to legally possess ammo. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Vermont.

Virginia

To purchase a long gun in Virginia buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Virginia buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Virginia nor is extra registration necessary. Virginia’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Virginia is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the state’s Department of State Police.

Virginia is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry state for concealed carrying and open carrying. Open carrying without a permit is legal for any person 18 years and up but local municipalities can still regulate that or ban it entirely on their own. Of course, there are also the standard areas that do not allow open or concealed carrying so do your research beforehand. CCW’s are offered in Virginia in the form of “HP’s” or handgun permits. Non-residents may also apply for an HP as long as they are at least 21 years old and can provide a certificate showing completion of a state-approved ccw class. Reciprocity wise Virginia honors all states’ ccw permits. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Virginia’s reciprocity map here.

Virginia does have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions but does have safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Virginia. Virginia is a castle doctrine state and has a stand your ground law in place which removes the duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

Virginia does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Essentially all ammunition is unrestricted in Virginia. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Virginia.

Washington

To purchase a handgun and a semiautomatic “assault rifle” in the state of Washington buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits or licenses are necessary for the purchase of handguns or long guns. Washington’s minimum age for possession of any gun is 21 years old. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemptions apply when minors have consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Washington is a full point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the Washington State Patrol and Department of Social and Health Services. Washington does have a mandatory waiting period of 10 days before buyers can take their firearm purchases home.

Washington is a “shall-issue” state for concealed carrying. Open carrying is also legal in Washington without a permit. Open carry is legal without permit for anyone who is at least 21 years old and legally allowed to possess a firearm. CCW’s are offered in the form of a “CPL” or Concealed Pistol License. Some areas are off-limits such as public schools or federal buildings, be sure to do your research before going into areas you don’t regularly frequent. CPL applicants must be at least 21 years old and there is no training class requirement. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Washington’s reciprocity map here.

Washington state does have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions, or safe storage mandates for firearms. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Washington. Some NFA items are legal for civilians to own in Washington but machine guns and short barreled shotguns are not.

Washington is not a castle doctrine state and doesn’t have an explicit stand your ground law in place but the Supreme Court in Washington has consistently ruled that there is no duty retreat if a person is in a place that they are legally allowed to be when being assaulted and forced to respond with force for their own self-defense and defense of others. However, Washingtonians must be careful to note that they cannot use more force than necessary depending on the given situation — A response of “equal force” is necessary.

Washington requires a license for dealers to sell ammo but licenses are not required for individuals who aren’t dealers. Sales records do not have to be maintained. Purchase, possession and sale of ammo does not require a license. Essentially, all ammunition is unrestricted in Washington. Ammo does, however, need to at all times be safely stored separately from flammable materials by a fire-resistant wall of a one hour rating or by a distance of 25 feet. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Washington.

West Virginia

To purchase a long gun in West Virginia buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in West Virginia buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in West Virginia nor is extra registration necessary. West Virginia’s minimum age for possession of any firearm including a concealable gun is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, traveling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. West Virginia is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI. West Virginia CCW holders are exempt from background checks when purchasing a gun from a FFL dealer.

West Virginia is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry state for concealed carrying. Permits are still being issued for reciprocity purposes with other states in the form of a “CHL” or a Concealed Handgun License. Open carrying is also legal in West Virginia without a permit for any person who is at least 18 years old and legally allowed to possess a firearm. Some areas are off limits so be sure to do your own research prior to going to new or unfamiliar places. Resident and non-resident applicants need to be at least 21 years old and to complete a state approved firearms training course. For individuals between the age of 18 to 21 there is also a provisional CHL that is available. In terms of reciprocity West Virginia honors all out-of-state CCWs. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see West Virginia’s reciprocity map here.

West Virginia does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in West Virginia but machine guns require registration.

West Virginia is a castle doctrine state and has an explicit stand your ground law in place which removes residents’ duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

West Virginia does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Sales records do not have to be maintained by sellers either. Essentially, all ammunition is unrestricted in West Virginia. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in West Virginia.

Wisconsin

To purchase a long gun in Wisconsin buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Wisconsin buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns in Wisconsin nor is extra registration necessary. Wisconsin’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Wisconsin is a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI for long gun transfers; handgun transfers’ background checks must go through the Wisconsin Department of Justice.

Wisconsin is a “shall-issue” state for concealed carrying. Open carrying is also legal in Wisconsin without a permit for anyone who is at least 18 years old and legally allowed to possess a firearm. Some areas are off limits and when open carrying so be sure to do your research before traveling to unfamiliar locations. Concealed carry is offered to Wisconsin residents in the form of a “CWL” or Concealed Weapons License. CWL applicants must be at least 21 years old and have completed a firearms training course among other requirements. Reciprocity wise Wisconsin honors every state’s CCW that honors their own. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Wisconsin’s reciprocity map here.

Wisconsin does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Wisconsin but machine guns have some extra restrictions.

Wisconsin is a castle doctrine state and doesn’t have an explicit stand your ground law in place but the laws in Wisconsin do not require residents to have a duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

Wisconsin does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Other than “armor piercing” rounds, essentially all other ammunition is unrestricted in Wisconsin. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Wisconsin.

Wyoming

To purchase a long gun in Wyoming buyers must be at least 18 years old. To purchase a handgun in Wyoming buyers must be at least 21 years old. No extra permits are needed to purchase handguns or long guns inWyoming nor is extra registration necessary. Wyoming’s minimum age for possession of handguns is 18 years old and there is no minimum age restriction for possession of long guns. In the event a minor is in possession of a handgun the normal exemption applies when minors have prior written consent from their parents or guardian or if they are in direct supervision or presence of their parents, guardian or when attending a hunter’s or firearms safety course, using the gun for target practice or recreational shooting at an established range, involved in an organized competition, hunting or trapping with a valid license, travelling to and from these events, or at their own residence with permission and supervision of a parents or a legal guardian.

All firearm purchases and transfers require a background check not including private party transfers (Dealer Record of Sale also known as 4473 form or “DROS”). While federal law requires federal firearm license holders (“FFL’s”:) to initiate background checks on buyers prior to the sale of a firearm, federal law also allows states to serve as their own “point of contact” and conduct their own background checks via state, federal records or databases, as well as the option to use the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. Wyoming is not a point of contact for the NICS and as a result, dealers must conduct their background checks by going through the FBI. Wyoming CCW holders are exempt from background checks when purchasing a gun from a FFL dealer.

Wyoming is a “shall-issue” and permitless carry (aka Constitutional Carry) state for concealed carrying. Constitutional carry became effective July 1, 2021. Permits are still being issued for reciprocity purposes with other states in the form of “CFP’s” or a Concealed Firearm Permit. Open carrying is also legal in Wyoming without a permit for any person who is at least 18 years old and legally allowed to possess a firearm. Some areas are off limits so be sure to do your research. CFP applicants must be 21 years old for handguns and 18 years old for long guns. Reciprocity wise, Wyoming recognizes all states’ CCWs that honors Wyoming’s as well. For more details on their concealed carrying policies see Wyoming’s reciprocity map here.

Wyoming does not have an “assault weapons” ban, does not have any magazine capacity restrictions or safe storage mandates. Machine guns and NFA items are allowed for civilian ownership in Wyoming.

Wyoming is a castle doctrine state and has an explicit stand your ground law in place which removes the duty to retreat before exercising the use of force or violence in defense of themselves or others.

Wyoming does not require a license for the purchase, possession or sale of ammo. Sales records do not have to be maintained. Virtually all ammunition is unrestricted in Wyoming. Online ammo purchases require buyers to be at least 21 years old but can be straight to your front door.

*As of this guide’s initial publish date, 80% lower receivers and frames are not considered as firearms by the ATF however they are legal to ship directly to buyers residing in Wyoming.

**This is a developing list of information we intend to update regularly to stay accurate and current. If you see a discrepancy or a mistake with your home state’s laws that we’ve covered, feel free to let us know so we can correct it. Thank you and stay safe!

***Legal Disclaimer: This information is provided as a service to the public. It is NOT intended to be taken as legal advice and should never be considered as such. Make sure to do your own research as you and you alone are responsible for your own actions.